Health Library

Our Health Library information does not replace the advice of a doctor. Please be advised that this information is made available to assist our patients to learn more about their health. Our providers may not see and/or treat all topics found herein.

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Your searched on: Urinary Disorders

Urinary System
Includes info on urine tests and urinary tract infections in children, teens, and adults. Also has links to stress incontinence and kidney stone info.

Urinary Problems and Injuries, Age 11 and Younger
Briefly discusses the urinary system in children. Covers possible causes of problems in young children. Offers interactive tool to help decide when to seek care. Also offers home treatment tips.

Urinary Problems and Injuries, Age 12 and Older
Briefly discusses the urinary system in teens and adults. Covers possible causes of problems, infections, and changes with age. Offers interactive tool to help decide when to seek care. Also offers home treatment tips.

Urinary Obstruction in Children
A urinary obstruction refers to anything that blocks, slows, or disrupts the normal flow of urine through the urinary tract. Obstructions can occur at any point in the urinary tract. They can be present at birth (congenital) or develop later. Urinary obstructions disrupt normal urine flow and allow bacteria to grow in...

Medicines and Urinary Symptoms
Many prescription and nonprescription medicines can cause urinary symptoms. A few examples include: Antihistamines. Decongestants. Opioid pain medicines. Tricyclic antidepressants. If you develop a urinary problem after taking a medicine: Call the doctor who prescribed the medicine to determine whether you...

Urinary Problems During Pregnancy
Most women have an increased urge to urinate during pregnancy. This is a normal body response related to hormone changes that occur during pregnancy and to physical pressure on the bladder. Bladder infections are more common during pregnancy. When a bladder infection develops during pregnancy, you may have discomfort...

Genital Injuries: Urinary Problems
An injury to the genital area can cause severe pain. Usually the pain subsides over the course of a few minutes to an hour. Severe pain does not always mean that your injury is severe. After an injury to the genital area, it is important that you watch for urinary problems. Other injuries that can cause problems with...

Complicated Urinary Tract Infections
Several factors determine whether you have a complicated urinary tract infection. You have symptoms, such as: A high temperature, greater than 101°F (38.3°C). Ongoing nausea, vomiting, and chills. Your condition getting worse in spite of doctor-directed home treatment. You have other risks, such as: Diabetes. Pregnancy...

Urinary Problems and Prostate Cancer
Both prostate cancer and its treatment may cause urinary problems. Urinary problems caused by prostate cancer The urethra—the tube that carries urine from your bladder and through your penis—passes through the middle of the prostate gland. When the prostate presses against the urethra, you can have trouble...

Urinary Tract Infections in Teens and Adults
Discusses urinary tract infection in teens and adults. Covers symptoms and how problems might be diagnosed with urinalysis or a urine culture. Looks at treatment with antibiotics. Offers home treatment and prevention tips.

Urinary Symptoms After an Injury in Children
When your child injures his or her genital area, the pain can be quite severe at first. Usually, the pain subsides over the course of a few minutes to an hour. The severity of the pain is not always an indication of the severity of the injury. After an injury to the genital area, it is important to watch for urinary...

Home Test for Urinary Tract Infections
Discusses test kits you can get without a prescription to use at home to check for urinary tract infections (UTIs). Looks at how test is done and how to prepare. Discusses possible results.

Cranberry Juice and Urinary Tract Infections
For years, people have used cranberry juice to prevent and help cure urinary tract infections (UTIs). There is limited proof that this is worth trying. Pure cranberry juice, cranberry extract, or cranberry supplements may help prevent repeated UTIs in women, but the benefit is small. Using cranberry products to prevent...

Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) in Older Adults
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in older women and men. Factors that make older adults more likely to develop UTIs include: An immune system that isn't as strong as when the person was younger. A reduced ability to control urination and...

Bladder Cancer
Discusses the causes and symptoms of bladder cancer. Covers how it is diagnosed and treatment options, including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Offers home treatment suggestions to manage side effects like nausea and trouble sleeping.

Interactive Tool: How Bad Are Your Urinary Symptoms From Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)?
Interactive tool to help you figure out whether you want treatment for urinary symptoms from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Provides links to more detailed info on BPH and decision tools for treatment options.

Kidney Stones
Explains why and how kidney stones form. Covers types of stones such as calcium, cystine, uric acid, and struvite. Discusses symptoms. Covers treatment, including extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and ureteroscopy. Offers prevention tips.

After Childbirth: Urination and Bowel Problems
You may have some difficulty urinating for a day or two after delivery. Your first bowel movement may be quite painful if you have had an incision ( episiotomy) or a tear in your vagina. You may also have constipation or discomfort with bowel movements for a few days after delivery. Drink plenty of water and juices and...

Vaginal Fistula
What is a vaginal fistula? A fistula is a passage or hole that has formed between: Two organs in your body. An organ in your body and your skin. A fistula that has formed in the wall of the vagina is called a vaginal fistula. A vaginal fistula that opens into the urinary tract is called a vesicovaginal fistula. A...

Retrograde Pyelogram for Kidney Stones
Briefly discusses test used to see if a kidney stone or something else is blocking your urinary tract. Covers how it is done and possible results.

Kidney Stone Analysis
Covers test done on a kidney stone to find out what the stone is made of. Links to info on types of stones, including calcium, uric acid, struvite, and cystine. Explains that test can help doctor decide treatment or give info on preventing more stones from forming.

Abdominal Pain, Age 11 and Younger
Briefly discusses possible causes of abdominal pain in children 11 and younger, including stomach flu, urinary tract infection, constipation, and appendicitis. Offers interactive tool to help decide when to seek care. Also offers home treatment tips.

Renal Artery Stenosis
This guide covers the basics of renal artery stenosis, including what it is, what causes it, and how it is treated.

Rhabdomyolysis
What is rhabdomyolysis? Rhabdomyolysis (say "rab-doh-my-AH-luh-suss") is a rare but serious muscle problem. When you have it, your muscle cells break down, or dissolve. The contents of those cells leak into the blood. When it's in the blood, that material can travel to various parts of the body and cause problems. If...

Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR)
What is vesicoureteral reflux (VUR)? Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is the backward flow of urine from the bladder into the kidneys. Normally, urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the bladder. The muscles of the bladder and ureters, along with the pressure of urine in the bladder, prevent urine from flowing...

Recurrent Abdominal Pain (RAP)
Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) with no cause is defined as at least 3 separate episodes of abdominal pain that occur in a 3-month period. These episodes are often severe, and the child is not able to do his or her normal activities. It may affect up to 30% of children between the ages of 4 and 12. Symptoms of RAP are...

Bladder Pain Syndrome (Interstitial Cystitis)
What is bladder pain syndrome (BPS)? Bladder pain syndrome (interstitial cystitis) is a problem that causes pain in the bladder or pelvis. It also causes an urgent, frequent need to urinate. The problem is much more common in women than in men. What causes BPS? Some doctors think BPS may be caused by abnormal changes in...

Diabetic Kidney Disease
Discusses diabetic nephropathy, which is kidney disease or damage caused by diabetes. Covers causes and symptoms. Discusses how it is diagnosed and treatment options, including medicines, diet, and dialysis. Offers home treatment and prevention tips.

Chronic Kidney Disease
Discusses chronic kidney disease (chronic renal failure), which means your kidneys don't work the way they should. Discusses dialysis. Covers treating diabetes and high blood pressure, which cause most cases of chronic kidney disease.

Acute Kidney Injury
Discusses acute kidney injury (which used to be called acute renal failure). It means your kidneys suddenly stop working normally. Includes prerenal acute kidney injury. Covers causes like kidney or liver disease. Includes symptoms like little urine (oliguria) when you urinate. Covers dialysis.

Pelvic Organ Prolapse
What is pelvic organ prolapse? Pelvic organ prolapse means that a pelvic organ—such as your bladder—has moved from its normal position and is pressing against your vagina. This can happen when the muscles and tissues that hold your pelvic organs in place get weak or damaged. Pelvic organ prolapse is common. It isn't...

Hypospadias
What is hypospadias? Hypospadias is a male birth defect in which the opening of the tube that carries urine from the body (urethra) develops abnormally, usually on the underside of the penis. The opening can occur anywhere from just below the end of the penis to the scrotum. What causes it? In most cases, the cause of...

Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer
Describes kidney cancer. Covers symptoms and how kidney cancer is diagnosed. Covers treatment with surgery and medicines.

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)
What is benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)? Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an enlarged prostate gland. The prostate gland surrounds the urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body. As the prostate gets bigger, it may squeeze or partly block the urethra. This often causes problems with...

End-Stage Renal Disease
What is end-stage renal disease? End-stage renal disease means that your kidneys may no longer be able to keep you alive. When your kidneys get to the point where they can no longer remove waste, you may need dialysis or a new kidney. When you understand your options, you can make the choice that's best for you...

Nephrotic Syndrome
Discusses nephrotic syndrome, a sign kidneys aren't working right. Includes high levels of protein in urine, low levels of protein in blood, and high cholesterol. Discusses swelling (edema) and kidney failure. Covers causes like diabetes. Covers treatment.

Prostatitis
Covers the various types of prostatitis, including acute bacterial, inflammatory, noninflammatory, and chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Covers symptoms for each type. Discusses treatment for each type. Covers lifestyle changes, medicines, and surgery.

Prostate Cancer
Provides info on an initial diagnosis. Discusses diagnostic tests, including PSA test and digital rectal exam. Covers symptoms common to prostate cancer and other conditions. Discusses treatment with active surveillance, surgery, or radiation. Also offers prevention tips.

Prostate Cancer, Advanced or Metastatic
Discusses prostate cancer that has spread or come back. Discusses symptoms. Covers treatment choices and factors that will affect them, including age, PSA level, Gleason score, and how far cancer has spread. Covers end-of-life issues.

Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI]
Bladder cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the bladder. The bladder is a hollow organ in the lower part of the abdomen. It is shaped like a small balloon and has a muscular wall that allows it to get larger or smaller to store urine made by the kidneys. There are two kidneys...

Childhood Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI]
Bladder cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the bladder. The bladder is a hollow organ in the lower part of the abdomen. It is shaped like a small balloon and has a muscle wall that allows it to get bigger or smaller. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood. They...

Kidney Stones: Preventing Kidney Stones Through Diet
Looks at eating plans for those who have had kidney stones. Explains what kidney stones are. Offers tips for preventing kidney stones, including drinking more water. Lists foods you should avoid.

Abdominal Pain, Age 12 and Older
Briefly discusses symptoms and possible causes of abdominal pain, such as peptic ulcer disease, indigestion, appendicitis, and stomach flu. Offers interactive tool to help decide when to seek care. Also offers home treatment tips.

Vascular Access Failure
Any type of dialysis access has some risk of failure. So it's important to always protect your access and be alert for signs of clotting or infection. Call your doctor right away about any signs of trouble. Make a habit of talking with your dialysis nurses and doctor about how well your access is doing. If your dialysis...

Medicines That Can Cause Acute Kidney Injury
Many medicines can cause acute kidney injury (acute renal failure), such as: Antibiotics. These include aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, amphotericin B, bacitracin, and vancomycin. Some blood pressure medicines. One example is ACE inhibitors, such as lisinopril and ramipril. Another is angiotensin receptor blockers...

Uremia
Uremia (uremic syndrome) is a serious complication of chronic kidney disease and acute kidney injury (which used to be known as acute renal failure). It occurs when urea and other waste products build up in the body because the kidneys are unable to eliminate them. These substances can become poisonous (toxic) to the...

Kidney Stones: Should I Have Lithotripsy to Break Up the Stone?
Guides through decision to have extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy to break up kidney stones. Describes what lithotripsy is and when it is normally used. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

Phosphate in Urine Test
The phosphate urine test measures the amount of phosphate in a sample of urine collected over 24 hours (24-hour urine test). Phosphate is a charged particle (ion) that contains the mineral phosphorus. The body needs phosphorus to build and repair bones and teeth, help nerves function, and make muscles contract. Most...

Cystectomy
Cystectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of the bladder. It is mainly used to treat bladder cancer that has spread into the bladder wall or to treat cancer that has come back (recurred) after treatment. Partial cystectomy takes out part of the bladder. It is used to treat cancer that has invaded the bladder...

Advance Care Planning: Should I Stop Kidney Dialysis?
Guides through decision to stop kidney dialysis for kidney failure. Covers key factors in decision. Covers benefits and risks. Discusses what happens after dialysis is stopped. Offers interactive tool to help you make your decision.

Anemia of Chronic Kidney Disease
What is anemia of chronic kidney disease? Anemia of chronic kidney disease means that kidney disease has caused your anemia. Your doctor will have ruled out other causes of anemia. Anemia means that you do not have enough red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen from your lungs to your body's tissues. If your...

Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI]
Urethral cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the urethra. The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside the body. In women, the urethra is about 1½ inches long and is just above the vagina. In men, the urethra is about 8 inches long, and goes through the...

Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI]
Transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the renal pelvis and ureter. The renal pelvis is the top part of the ureter. The ureter is a long tube that connects the kidney to the bladder. There are two kidneys, one on each side of the backbone, above the...

Transurethral Resection of the Bladder
Transurethral resection of the bladder is a surgery to remove abnormal tissue (tumor) from the bladder through the urethra. It is also called transurethral resection of bladder tumor, or TURBT. A tumor in the bladder may be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer). This surgery uses a special tool to find and remove a...

Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI]
Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear, cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to...

Peritoneal Dialysis
Discusses peritoneal dialysis. Covers having a catheter and using dialysate solution. Discusses hemodialysis. Looks at what to expect after treatment, how well it works, and risks.

Kidney Disease: Changing Your Diet
Discusses changing your diet to help protect your kidneys when you have kidney disease. Gives general ideas about how to follow the diet your doctor or dietitian recommends. Covers restricting salt (sodium), protein, phosphorus, and potassium.

Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI]
Childhood kidney tumors are diseases in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the kidney. There are two kidneys, one on each side of the spine, above the waist. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood. They take out waste products and make urine. The urine passes from each kidney through a...

Sodium (Na) in Blood Test
A sodium test checks how much sodium is in the blood. Sodium is both an electrolyte and mineral. It helps keep the water (the amount of fluid inside and outside the body's cells) and electrolyte balance of the body. Sodium is also important in how nerves and muscles work. Most of the sodium in the body (about 85%) is...

Pelvic Organ Prolapse: Should I Have Surgery?
Guides through decision to have surgery for pelvic organ prolapse. Explains symptoms and discusses several types of surgeries used for different symptoms. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

Living With More Than One Health Problem
Many people have more than one long-term (chronic) health problem. You may be one of them. For example, you may have high blood pressure and diabetes, or you may have high blood pressure, diabetes, and heart failure. When you have more than one problem, doctors call the health problems comorbidities. One health problem...

Complications of Enlarged Prostate
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) rarely has complications. When it does, they are often due to severe obstruction of the urine flow. These complications include: Complete blockage of the urethra (acute urinary retention, or AUR). This results in a complete inability to urinate. It can cause kidney damage, which may be...

Uroflowmetry Test
The uroflowmetry test measures the rate of urine flow during urination. Results are usually given in milliliters per second (mL/sec). This test is sometimes used to evaluate the impact that benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has on urine flow or to monitor the effect of treatment. Your doctor and studies about treatment...

Enlarged Prostate: Bathroom Tips
The following tips may make it easier to deal with your benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) symptoms. Practice "double voiding" by urinating as much as possible, relaxing for a few moments, and then urinating again. Try to relax before you urinate. Tension from worrying about your symptoms can make them worse. Anxiety...

Kidney Failure: Should I Start Dialysis?
Guides through decision whether to start kidney dialysis for kidney failure. Covers key factors in decision. Covers benefits and risks. Offers interactive tool to help you make your decision.

Types of Kidney Stones
The four main types of kidney stones are: Calcium stones. Most kidney stones are made of calcium compounds. Conditions that cause high calcium levels in the body, such as hyperparathyroidism, increase the risk of calcium stones. Uric acid stones. Some kidney stones are made of uric acid, a waste product in urine. You're...

Shock Wave Lithotripsy
Discusses shock wave lithotripsy, a procedure that uses shock waves to break a kidney stone into smaller pieces. Covers how it is done and what to expect after treatment. Covers risks.

Open Surgery for Kidney Stones
Discusses traditional surgery used to remove kidney stones. Covers why it is done and what to expect after surgery. Covers risks.

Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy or Nephrolithotripsy
Looks at procedures to remove kidney stones from the kidneys. Explains difference between nephrolithotomy and nephrolithotripsy. Looks at when each may be done. Covers risks.

Ureteroscopy
A ureteroscopy is a type of procedure. Your doctor may do it to remove kidney stones from one of your ureters. These are the tubes that carry urine from your kidneys to your bladder. Your doctor may also do it to help find the reason for a urinary infection or blood in your urine. Your doctor puts a thin scope with very...

Kidney Failure: What Type of Dialysis Should I Have?
Guides through decision about what type of dialysis to have for kidney failure. Explains the two basic types of dialysis: hemodialysis and peritoneal. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you make your decision.

Multiple Sclerosis: Bladder Problems
A person with MS may have trouble getting the bladder to empty all the way. This is because the muscle that helps to retain urine cannot relax. (This is a form of spasticity). Sometimes urination can be started by pressing or tapping the bladder area or by straining. Medicines can also help in some cases. Examples...

Foods High in Oxalate
Oxalate is a compound found in some foods, and it is also produced as a waste product by the body. It exits the body through the urine. Too much oxalate may cause kidney stones in some people. Foods high in oxalate include: Beets. Fried potatoes, such as french fries and potato chips. Nuts. Rhubarb. Spinach.

Enlarged Prostate: Should I Have Surgery?
Guides through decision to have prostate surgery for BPH. Lists benefits and risks of surgery. Discusses taking medicine to treat your enlarged prostate instead. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI]
Prostate cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the prostate. The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system. It lies just below the bladder (the organ that collects and empties urine) and in front of the rectum (the lower part of the intestine). It is about the size of a...

Potassium (K) in Blood Test
Discusses blood test to check level of potassium (K) in blood. Includes info on what affects potassium levels in the body such as kidney function, blood pH, and hormones. Explains how and why test is done. Covers what results mean.

Repair of Bladder Prolapse (Cystocele) or Urethra Prolapse (Urethrocele)
Two common forms of pelvic organ prolapse are bladder prolapse (cystocele) and urethral prolapse (urethrocele). A cystocele occurs when the wall of the bladder presses against and moves the wall of the vagina. A urethrocele occurs when the tissues surrounding the urethra sag downward into the vagina. Both conditions are...

Prostate Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI]
Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer, the number of new cases of cancer in a group or population is lowered. Hopefully, this will lower the number of deaths caused by cancer. To prevent new cancers from starting, scientists look at risk factors and protective...

Enlarged Prostate: Herbal Therapy
Herbal supplements that may be used to relieve symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) include beta-sitosterol, cernilton , Pygeum africanum, and saw palmetto. In general, the trials using these substances have been short, and self-reported improvement scores can be biased. Different preparations are available...

Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer
Active surveillance is an option for some people who have slow-growing cancer that hasn't spread outside the prostate (localized). With active surveillance, you'll have regular checkups and tests. You won't have treatment unless tests show the cancer is growing. Some people will never need treatment. It may seem odd to...

Transurethral Incision of the Prostate (TUIP) for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
You will likely stay in the hospital for 1 to 3 days after surgery. Most people can go back to work or their usual routine in about 3 to 5 weeks. But it can take longer to fully recover. A thin, flexible tube called a catheter usually is left in your bladder to drain your urine for 1 to 2 weeks. Your doctor will give...

Stroke: Bladder and Bowel Problems
Urinary incontinence Some people who have a stroke suffer loss of bladder control (urinary incontinence) after the stroke. But this is usually temporary. And it can have many causes, including infection, constipation, and the effects of medicines. If you have problems controlling your bladder, your doctor may: Test a...

Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer (Androgen Deprivation Therapy, or ADT)
Hormone therapy treats prostate cancer by lowering the level of certain hormones in the body. These hormones are called androgens. Prostate cancer needs androgens to grow. The main androgen is testosterone. Reducing the level of testosterone can slow the growth of prostate cancer and even shrink the tumors. The...

Simple Prostatectomy for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Discusses traditional surgery to remove an enlarged prostate. Covers what to expect after surgery and risks.

Dementia: Bladder and Bowel Problems
Loss of bladder and bowel control (incontinence) can sometimes result from Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. Several strategies may help you deal with this problem: Encourage the person to use the bathroom on a regular schedule, such as every...

Transurethral Prostatectomy for Prostatitis
Briefly discusses surgery to remove the prostate gland through the urethra. Covers why it is done and how well it works. Lists risks.

Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI]
Renal cell cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in tubules of the kidney. Renal cell cancer (also called kidney cancer or renal cell adenocarcinoma) is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the lining of tubules (very small tubes) in the kidney. There are 2 kidneys, one on each...

Transurethral Microwave Therapy (TUMT) for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
In transurethral microwave therapy (TUMT), an instrument (called an antenna) that sends out microwave energy is inserted through the urethra to a location inside the prostate. Microwave energy is then used to heat the inside of the prostate. Cooling fluid is circulated around the microwave antenna to prevent heat from...

Syphilis Tests
Syphilis tests are done to check for a syphilis infection. They look for antibodies to the bacteria that cause syphilis. Some tests look for the syphilis bacteria. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection. That means it is spread through sexual contact: vaginal, anal, or oral sex. It can also spread to the fetus of...

Acne: Treatment With Salicylic Acid
Salicylic acid is an active ingredient in some nonprescription acne treatments. When you apply it to your skin, it dries up whiteheads, blackheads, and pimples. It also causes the top layer of your skin to peel. Products that contain salicylic acid...

Kidney Failure: When Should I Start Dialysis?
Discusses the decision about when to start dialysis. Includes what kidney failure is, the treatment for it, and reasons why you might or might not want to start dialysis. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

Prostate Cancer: Should I Choose Active Surveillance?
Guides you through decision to use active surveillance for men who have low-risk and for some men who have medium-risk localized prostate cancer. Lists reasons for and against active surveillance. Includes interactive tool to help you make your decision.

Cryosurgery for Prostate Cancer
Cryosurgery uses extreme cold to destroy cancer cells. It may be used to treat early prostate cancer. It's an option for those who can't have radiation therapy or a more invasive type of surgery. Or it may be used to treat prostate cancer that has come back after radiation therapy. During this treatment, very thin...

Orchiectomy for Prostate Cancer
Orchiectomy is the removal of the testicles. The penis and the scrotum, the pouch of skin that holds the testicles, are left intact. An orchiectomy is done to stop most of the body's production of testosterone, which prostate cancer usually needs in order to continue growing. Simple orchiectomy is the removal of both...

Prostate Cancer Screening
The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test can help find prostate cancer early. But it may not help you live any longer than if you had no screening. And it could lead to harmful treatments that you don't need. Talk with your doctor about your health, your risk factors for prostate cancer, and the pros and cons of PSA...

Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP) for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is surgery to reduce or remove prostate tissue. It is done when an overgrown prostate gland is pressing on the urethra and causing problems with a man's urine stream. The prostate gland is a small organ just below a man's bladder. It makes most of the fluid in semen. The...

Prostate Cancer Screening: Should I Have a PSA Test?
Guides through decision to have a PSA test to check for prostate cancer. Includes what PSA results tell you and what they do not. Covers benefits and risks. Includes an interactive tool to help you decide.

Hereditary Kidney Cancer Syndromes (PDQ®): Genetics - Patient Information [NCI]
Kidney cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in tubules of the kidney. Kidney cancer (also called renal cell cancer) is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the lining of tubules (very small tubes) in the kidney. There are 2 kidneys, one on each side of the backbone, above the...

Prostate Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI]
Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear, cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to...

Hemodialysis
Discusses process of hemodialysis when chronic kidney disease and acute kidney injury cause kidneys to lose ability to remove waste and extra fluid. Covers fistulas and grafts. Looks at what to expect after treatment. Discusses peritoneal dialysis.

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